The road to American independence was difficult, a path based on the idea of true democracy and liberalism. As the colonies continued to evolve and increase in population, these ideas were eventually translated into action.
After a costly war in the 1750s, in which England narrowly defeated the French, the American colonists were required to compensate Britain monetarily to help pay for the economic losses caused by the war and further establish the Empire. British. Naturally, these policies, which limited the life of the settlers and their own economic growth, were not very popular. Some of these policies included the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which limited the settlers’ freedom to settle in new lands, the Currency Act of 1764, which prohibited colonists from printing money, the Housing Act (Quartering). Act) of 1765, which requires settlers to provide food and shelter to royal soldiers, and the Stamp Act of 1765,
Enraged by these prohibitive policies, the colonies united to form an organized resistance movement. The main problem that triggered this movement was the impossibility of participating in a government that was imposing taxes, a concept known as “taxes without representation.” In October 1765, delegates from nine of the thirteen colonies met in New York and passed resolutions prohibiting the practice of unjust taxes. This measure satisfied the majority of the people, however, a small group of radicals, including Samuel Adams of Massachusetts, promoted the complete independence of Great Britain. Adams wrote numerous newspaper articles on the subject and made dozens of speeches, finally getting the groups organized as part of the revolutionary movement. In 1773, a tax imposed by the British on tea infuriated a group of colonial merchants, who managed to sneak into the three British ships that were in the port of Boston and throw all their load of tea into the water. This recognized and the very memorable act of resistance came to be known as the Boston Tea Party.
In 1774, delegates from all the colonies except Georgia met in Philadelphia at a First Continental Congress. Although everyone was angry about the British policies imposed on them, the group was divided into several, the Conservatives, who wanted to remain subjects of the Crown, the moderates, who wanted to compromise and build a better relationship with England, and the revolutionaries, who wanted total independence. This last group began to store weapons in preparation for what they knew would be a bitter struggle for independence.
The American Revolution and the War of the Independence of Great Britain began in April of 1775 with a small fight between the British troops and the colonists. In Lexington those troops met armed settlers known as “Minutemen” (they were called that because they could be willing to fight at any time). From that small battle erupted a full-scale war for independence, a seven-year war that resulted in the death and injury of thousands of soldiers on both sides.
The Declaration of Independence Later, in 1775, the colonial representatives met again in Philadelphia at the Second Continental Congress. A committee was established to create a document highlighting the colonies’ complaints against the king and carefully explained their decision to secede from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson was the main author of this document, a document entitled the Declaration of Independence that announced to the world the birth of a new nation, a nation based on the ideals of freedom and universal human rights. The Declaration of Independence was accepted and ratified by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. That date, now known as the Fourth of July or 4th of July facts 2018, continues to be held annually in the US. in honor of the nation’s birthday.
United States History: The United States Constitution
In 1783, the original 13 colonies officially became the United States of America. Before the end of the war, the colonies had developed the Articles of Confederation, a plan to work together as a single nation, although the connections between the 13 colonies were too fragmented. Then, each state had its own currency, army, navy and trade, which resulted in an America that was essentially a nation of 13 countries.
Many of the settlers, like Alexander Hamilton of New York, believed that the Articles of Confederation, although well-intentioned, need to be rethought. Thus, in May 1787, delegates met again in Philadelphia to draft a Constitution for the United States. After months of work, in September 1787, the US Constitution was ratified, creating a central government with three independent powers guaranteeing personal and collective fundamental freedoms of all Americans.
History of the United States: The first years of the United States of America
On April 30, 1789, George Washington was appointed as the first president of the United States of America. Washington had served as a general in the War of Independence and was highly respected in all states of the new union. With the help of Congress, he created the Treasury, Justice and War departments. The heads of these three agencies, plus those that would later be created made up the President’s Cabinet. Washington served as president for 8 years, in two four-year terms.
They followed Washington as presidents of the United States John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. These two presidents had different ideas about the role that government should play in the lives of Americans, which ultimately led to the creation of political parties. Alexander Hamilton led the Federalist Party, whose supporters included people involved in trade and manufacturing. They considered that the central government should be strong, and would leave less power in the hands of the states. Most of his support was in the northern regions, where much of the American industry was. The Republican Party, whose supporters were mainly farmers and resided in the southern states, was headed by Thomas Jefferson.
During the first twenty years of its existence, the United States, although maintaining friendly relations with all nations, remained neutral and without allying with any of them. However, France and Britain once again entered the war, threatening the security of the United States. The United States finally went to war in 1812 against Great Britain, the War of 1812. It was in the states of the northeast coast of the United States where most of the battles were fought. A unit of the British army managed to get to Washington DC, the new capital of the United States, where it proceeded to set fire to the presidential mansion, forcing the then President James Madison to flee the White House, to be burning in flames . America came to win the war of 1812, which culminated in the Treaty of Ghent of 1815. Among other things,
In 1815, the United States marched smoothly, with the help of a Constitution that provides a balance between freedom and order. The country enjoyed, with a reduced public debt, peace, prosperity, and social progress. An important addition to US foreign policy was the Monroe Doctrine, named after President James Monroe. Among other provisions set forth in this document, the doctrine announced the solidarity of the newly independent nations of Central and South America, which served as a warning to Europe not to try to establish new colonies in Latin America.
The United States doubled in size with the purchase of Louisiana and grew, even more, when it bought Florida from the Spanish. From 1816 to 1821, six new states were created, and between 1812 and 1852, the country’s population tripled in size. However, as the country grew, the differences between the states became more evident and problematic. The United States was a country of both civilized cities and lawless borders, a country enthusiastic about the idea of freedom but tolerant of slavery.
Slavery became an important issue in the 1850s and early 1860s. The majority of Northerners, while morally opposed to slavery, did not want to prevent it in the rural South, although they did oppose slavery in the new territories. Southerners understood that their territories have the right to decide for themselves regarding slavery. It was then that a young Illinois politician appeared, a man named Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln believed that slavery was not a local problem, but a national one. Initially, he agreed to the South keeping his slaves, but he fought to prevent slavery in the rest of the territories. He hoped that eventually, they would end slavery voluntarily, as reflected in his famous quote: ” A house divided against itself cannot last. This government cannot remain half slave and half free. ”
The South threatened to leave the Union if Lincoln became president, which happened in 1860, becoming the sixteenth President of the United States. Before he delivered his first inaugural address in 1861, seven southern states had already separated from the Union. A climate of tension was maintained between the North and the South, while the country was on the verge of civil war.